His aggressive wars helped to expand the Pandya power in various directions. The chief of the marudam region was known by the terms iiran and rnagiinan. From the extant Tamil works of the Sangam Age about twenty names of Pan jya kings and princes could be gathered. Inside this were the remains of a skull and the bones of a skeleton which were large -sized and evidently those of a person over the ordinary height. Karikilar, Puram 6, Saraswathi and Raja Sekhar, who tried not to wince in Madurai. In the first and second centuries A. Of the twelve Alvars, four hailed from the Pan jya country.

It is one of the earliest of Tamil prose commentaries. For example, there are important organizational differences associated with differences in the economic specializations of Kaikkolars and Nakarattars. They are useful not only regarding the political history of Madurai in the 17th and 18th centuries but also contain much information about the economic, social and cultural life of the people. Two recent works on South Indian rural history make significant progress in such an inquiry: Modern mud and stone walls have been erected in this cavern by a Hindu mendicant who had been using this cavern. The following chapter, however, takes up another conceptual difficulty no less problematic than that provided by Western definitions of caste—one that, in fact, complicates and is complicated by those definitions.

Salour, a mart, is included in the land of Pandian. I don’t have a dull moment when they are around.

Later on Greece and Rome began to have direct contacts with South Sinivasa. The great cities of Kanci, Tiruchirappalli, for instance, are unques- tionably ancient centres like Madurai.

Nakarattars maximized transactions of subtle substances, especially money, hundis bills of exchangeand credit. Rather, caste identity defines a category of people who are candidates for alliance in virtually any common cause. By contrast, if economic variables are taken into account, I suggest that castes will typically emerge as complex, multilayered, multifunctional corporate kin groups with enduring identities, a variety of rights over property, and crucial economic roles, often within large regions.


Rather, the operative values seem to entail nonhierarchical relationships of trust and trustworthiness, often created and symbolized by religious gifting on the part of those engaged in commerce. It has already published the papers presented at the Chingleput district and the State level seminars, it has also published two books on the historical site of Kudavasal and on the Pallava magnate, Karunakara Tondaiman.

Full text of “Madurai Through The Ages: From The Earliest Times To A.d.”

Its history has been traced from ‘ prehistoric times and beginnings of recorded history. There, they would rest briefly, perhaps no longer than the three-month summer, during which most Nakarattar marriages and temple ceremonies occur. Specifically, in Chapter 10, I summarize my findings about Nakarattar kinship organization as an adaptive response to financial occupational specialization, explore their implications for standard models of Dravidian kinship, and begin a project of systematic comparison between Nakarattars and nonmercantile forms of caste organization.

Paramasivam, Muthu Chidambaram, V. The Pand- yan kings of the Sangam period were liberal patrons of learning and some of them were poets of no mean order themselves.

The poem gives graphic descrip- tions of the country and the people kalyanan the rainy kalyansm. These indicate that he considered himself the overlord epjsode the Geras and Colas.

Originally it had contained 70 poems, but only 24 songs and a few fragments have now survived. Kaikkolars produced textile commodities that were easily transportable and that, in fact, have been the object of international trade for a thousand years or more. Their swords decorated with gold episde, hung by their sides.

This also shows the great antiquity of, the worship of hero-stones. Nak- Idrar refers to the ships which brought diffeient articles of merchan- disc from various kalyznam countries. In particular, he is concerned with the organization of commerce in so-called burgher cities, such as Allahabad or Benares, which exhibit long histories of financial, commercial, and industrial activity and an elite, multicaste commercial community.


These conventions specified the fauna and flora, produce, mode of occupation and industries, type of people, conditions of life, war and marriage and the deities and the kind of poetry to be sung respectively regarding these five natural regions. Some have been governed by authentic kings. A divine origin is thus attri- buted to the two ancient temples in the city.

Various Sanskrit and Telugu works of the Vijayanagara period, while primarily concerned with Vijayanagara history, help to eluci- date the history of Madurai. Under the colonial government, Southeast Asian agriculturalists lacked the legal rights and the local organization that made money lending in Madras so risky.

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In Washbrook’s restricted view, fpisode of caste identity simply fail to operate in the organization of pan-regional social groups, except in temporary nineteenth- and twentieth-century political coalitions.

Margayya, the moneylender of Malgudi, begins his business life by assisting peasants in dealing with the town’s Central Cooperative Land Mortgage Bank. On the other hand, Nakarattars differed from both of these large-scale mercantile castes in a variety of other respects. Therg is also a place Kalappal in the Tamil country. Koilamma – Episode 03 07 – Sep – Star Maa 2 years ago. It is impossible for me to name all kayanam Nakarattars who extended hospitality to me in Chettinad.

This is precisely the conclusion that can be drawn from recent historical analyses of agrarian castes, as will be addressed in the following section. The mekalaiis termed emp- padakal since it was composed of row upon row of stringed pearls from about two to thirtytwo strings. Periplus oj the Erythraean Sea, p.