Yes, he said, inevitably. And so tyranny naturally arises out of democracy, and the most aggravatedform of tyranny and slavery out of the most extreme form of liberty? Yes, he said, the States are as the men are; they grow out of human characters. And we shall know whether we ought to pur-sue injustice, as Thrasymachus advises, or in accordance with the conclusionsof the argument to prefer justice. Will not the passionate man who carries his passion into action, be in thelike case, whether he is envious and ambitious, or violent and contentious, orangry and discontented, if he be seeking to attain honour and victory and thesatisfaction of his anger without reason or sense? He who is of a tyrannical nature, and instead of leading a private life has beencursed with the further misfortune of being a public tyrant.

Will not the desire of eating, that is, of simple food and condiments, in so far asthey are required for health and strength, be of the necessary class? And then one, seeing another grow rich, seeks to rival him, and thus the greatmass of the citizens become lovers of money. After this manner the democrat was generated out of theoligarch? Of all changes, he said, there is none so speedy or so sure as the conversion ofthe ambitious youth into the avaricious one. And food and wisdom are the corresponding satisfactions of either? And here we must not allow ourselves to be panic-strickenat the apparition of the tyrant, who is only a unit and may perhaps have a fewretainers about him; but let us go as we ought into every corner of the city andlook all about, and then we will give our opinion. And, as in a body which is diseased the addition of a touch from without maybring on illness, and sometimes even when there is no external provocation acommotion may arise within—in the same way wherever there is weakness inthe State there is also likely to be illness, of which the occasion may be veryslight, the one party introducing from without their oligarchical, the other theirdemocratical allies, and then the State falls sick, and is at war with herself; andmay be at times distracted, even when there is no external cause.


I shall particularly wish to hear what were the four constitutions of which youwere speaking. And now remember the character which we attributed to the democratic man. Ought I not to begin by describing how the change from timocracy to oligarchyarises?


For when your guardians are ignorant of the law of births, andunite bride and bridegroom out of season, the children will not be goodly orfortunate. Yes, he said; at the time they are pleased and oe content to be at rest. To be sure, he said; how can he think otherwise?

I assume, I said, that the tyrant is in the third place from the oligarch; the de-mocrat was in the middle? After this manner the democrat was generated out of theoligarch?

What else can they do? Yes, he said; but what are the characteristics of this form of eepisode, andwhat are the defects of which we were speaking? A time arrives when the representative of timocracy has a son: I do not think that he has as yet reached the utmost extreme of misery.

I should not wonder.


And if there is truth in what has preceded, he will be wedded to an image ofpleasure which is thrice removed as to truth from the pleasure of the oligarch? Then if the man is like the State, I said, must not the same rule prevail?

IDPH enquiry will then be completed. Yes, he said, that is the way.

May I suppose that the judgment is givenin the hearing of us all by one who is able to judge, and has dwelt in the sameplace with him, and been present at his dally life and known him in his familyrelations, where he may be seen stripped of his tragedy attire, and again in thehour of public danger—he shall tell us about the happiness and misery of thetyrant when compared with other men?

And would you say that the soul of such an one is the soul of a freeman, or of aslave? This, I said, is he who begins to make a party against the rich? Suppose, as people facetiously say, you were to tell me.


Yes, he said; at any rate the individual out of whom he came is like the State outof which oligarchy came. And when he has made reason and spirit sit down on the ground obediently oneither side of their sovereign, and taught them to know their place, he compelsthe one to think only of how lesser sums may be turned into larger ones, andwill not allow the other to worship and admire anything but riches and richmen, or to be ambitious of anything so much as the acquisition of wealth andthe means of acquiring it.

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But will he not desire to get them on epiisode spot? A small catalogue of evils, even if the perpetrators of them are few in number. Just so, he replied. Youand I have dreamed the same thing. Still, the more numerous and violent pleasures which reach the soul throughthe body are generally of this sort—they are reliefs of pain. Let that be his place, he said.

Yes, he replied, he is all liberty and equality. And do they not share? Let me ask you not to forget the piefe of the individual and the State; bearingthis in mind, and glancing in turn from one to the other of them, will you tellme their respective conditions?

You would allow, I said, that there is in nature an upper and lower and middle http: He has desires which he is utterly unable to satisfy, andhas more wants than any one, and is truly poor, if you know how to inspectthe whole soul of him: And so hebids him and his companions depart, just as any other father might drive out ofthe house a riotous son and his undesirable associates.